R/V Maria S Merian

Overview:

During the EUREC4A campaign the R/V Maria S. Merian will operate in the vicinity of the core measurement area, complementing the upper air network and studying atmospheric oceanic interactions as mediated by ocean mesoscale eddies. Given the interest in ocean eddies it carries a fuller complement of instrumentation for measuring the upper ocean, but also intends to make state of the art Largrangian cloud measurements with a CloudKite carrying advanced microphysical instrumentation.   The cloud measurements will be contextualized by surface zenith pointing remote sensing and radio-sondes.  In addition, coordinated atmospheric and oceanic measurements with other participating research vessels (RV Maria S. Merian, RV  L’Atalante, RV Ron Brown, and possible Barbadian vessels) are scheduled during EUREC4A.  These will add spatial context and improved sampling. Current plans have the RV Meteor departing Bridgetown, Barbados on 18 January, 2020, in coordination with other vessels. After the end of the campaign around 20 February the RV Meteor will transit across the Atlantic with an arrival scheduled at Pt. Delgada, Azores, on 3 March, 2020

Instrumentation:

CTD–O2 water sampling rosette

conductivity, temperature, pressure, oxygen, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), fluorescence, turbidity, nitrate (PI: Karstensen)

uCTD / Rapid CastSix-twelve times daily (minimum) Vaisala RS41-SGP radiosondes measuring pressure, temperature, humidity and GPS position (Claudia Stephan, MPI-M).
Microstructure Sonde
The microstructure sonde (MSS) measures  profiles of micro-scale velocity shear, and temperature, O2 and turbidity fluctuations to determine the strength of turbulence in the water column. (PI: Dengler)
UVP
A camera designed to image particles and plankton within the size range of 50 µm and 2 cm, mounted on the CTD-Rosette. It takes images of a 1 L illuminated volume (20 Hz). Particles/plankton > 0.5 mm are identified (PI: Kieko)
X-Band Radar The 9.4 GHz X-Band wave radar measuring both phase and intensity of the radar backscatter sampled up to a maximum range of ca. 3 km (PI: Horstmann)
CARTHE driftersCARTHE drifters consist of two interlocking drogue panels, a flexible rubber tether, and a float with an integrated GPS transmitter and battery. The drogue is centered at a depth of 0.40 m. (PI: Horstmann)
FerryboxUnderway sensor package Ferrybox will sample near surface (ca. 6m WD) CO2 partial pressure and temperature in 1 Hz reolution (PI: Landschützer)
Thermosalinograph (TSG)Underway sensor package to sample near surface (ca. 6m WD) temperature and salinity in 1 Hz resolution (PI: Karstensen)
Slocum Underwater electric glidermeasure CTD/O2, microstructure, shear and temperature, chlorophyll a, nitrate, turbidity, optical coloured dissolved organic matter, and fluorescence (PI: Krahmann)
Discrete water samplingat CTD-O2 stations water is sampled at selected depth for oxygen, biogeochemical parameters (incl. nutrient concentrations) and other parameters (PI: Mohr)
Incubation Primary productivity and N2 fixation via incubation experiments on water samples, and Microbial community structure sampling (PI: Mohr)
Moving Vessel profiler (MVP)The MVP is a streamlines buoy towed behind the ship at a speed of 3 - 6 knots.  It will be used to survey the upper 250 m of the water column for its stratification (Temperature, Salinity) (PI: Karstensen)
Surface driftersSurface drifters will be deployed to get an estimate of the surface currents (PI: Karstensen/E-surfmar)
Multibeam echosoundersMultibeam echosounders (EM712, EM122) will be used for underway bathymetric measurements ((PI: Wölfi))
Ammonia oxidationVolumetric rates of ammonia oxidation will be determined from seawater sampled from the CTD and with the use of stable isotope tracers (15N) (PI: Morh)
SaildronesSaildrone vehicles, equipped with a small meteorological station, a physics/biogeochemical sensor package (T, S, O2, pCO2, chlorophyll/ turbidity), ADCP (currents) and zooplankton detector will be operated (PI: Karstensen)
Cloudkite (unmanned aerial vehicle)The Max Planck Cloudkite equipped with an advanced cloud-particle imaging systems, and infrared and video camera system. The cloudkite will be operated within near range of the vessel profiling clouds up to  2 km above the surface (PI: Bodenschatz)
Cloud radarA 94 Ghz (W-band) Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) Radar will obtain vertical profiles (150 m to 10 km above ground) of reflectivity, Doppler velocity, Doppler spectral width. This information is used to estimate macrophysical (cloud boundaries, type of cloud particles), and microphysical (e.g., liquid and ice water content) properties of clouds, and the integrated amount of liquid water (ILW) in the atmospheric column, or integrated water vapor (IWV) when no clouds are present (PI: Acquistapace)
ADMIRARI ADMIRARI stands for Advanced Microwave Radiometer for Rain Identirication.  It is a passive microwave radiometer specifically designed  to measure water vapor, cloud and rain liquid water with high temporal (1s) and spatial resolution (5°). The radiometer is equipped with two active instruments, a Micro Rain Radar (MRR) at 24.1 GHz frequency for rain structure observation and a cloud Lidar at 920 nm wavelength for Cloud base estimation (PI: Acquistapace)
DisdrometerAn optical disdrometer will measure the size, fall speed and precipitation intensity of the different precipitation types. Wind speed and wind direction are also recorded (PI: Kinne)
Handheld Sun photometerHandheld Sun photometer with different narrow spectral filters at 380nm, 500nm, 870nm, 936nm (for columnar water vapor retrieval) and 1020nm will be operated in clear sky conditions (PI: Kinne)
Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP)Shipboard observations of current velocity using the ADCP mounted to the hull/fixed in moonpool of the Merian (38 kHz and 75 kHz RDI Ocean Surveyors) (PI: Karstensen)
Standar MeteorologyThe Maria S Merian is equipped with standard meteorological instrumentation, including a surface met station, and broadband longwave and shortwave irradiances  (PI Kinne).

PI/Contact:

Johannes Karstensen of GEOMAR in Kiel s the Lead-Scientist (''Fahrtleiter' in German) for the Cruise of the R/V Maria S Merian. All general questions should be directed to him. For instrument specific questions, contact the instrument PIs identified above.

Scientific Crew:

Karstensen


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